After this defeat the importance
of Hyderabad declined and the city fell into partial ruins.
As the Moghul empire decayed and began to disintegrate, the
viceroy, Asaf Jah I proclaimed himself the Nizam and established
independence rule of the Deccan. Hyderabad once again became
a major capital city, ruled by successive Nizams of the Asaf
Jahi dynasty until the state was merged into Indian Union
SECUNDERABAD: In 1798, a subsidiary alliance
for military and political cooperation was signed between
the Nizam and the British East India company. There after
an area north of what is now the Hussain Sagar was established
as a cantonment. The area was named Secunderabad after the
then Nizam, Sikander Jah.
From nawabs and pearls to the world's hi-tech
happening point, the city's journey is fascinating. The sprawling
metropolis is coming to terms with itself at the start of
the new millenium. The Qutb Shahi dynasty founded the Kingdom
of Golconda, one of the five kingdoms that emerged after the
break up of the Bahamani Kingdom. The Qutb Shahis ruled the
Deccan for almost 171 years.All the seven rulers were patrons
of learning and were great builders. They contributed to the
growth and development of Indo-Persian and Indo-Islamic literature
and culture in Hyderabad. During the Qutb Shahi reign Golconda
became one of the leading markets in the world of diamonds,
pearls, steel for arms, and also printed fabric. The glory
of the Golconda kingdom ended in 1687, after a valiant struggle.
Aurangzeb, the last great Mughal ruler, captured Golconda
after a siege that lasted eight months.
Tana Shah, the last king of Golconda, was imprisoned
at Daulatabad, where he died after twelve years in captivity.
With the conquest of the Deccan and the South, Aurangzeb
succeeded in expanding the Mughal Empire to cover the
entire sub-continent. However, after his death in 1707,
the Empire rapidly declined. At that time , the Deccan
was administered by a Subedar or viceroy of the Mughal
Emperor. Mir Quamaruddin, the Governor of the Deccan,
who bore the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk Feroze Jung Asif
Jah, declared his independence from Mughal rule in 1724.He
thus became the first Nizam and the founder of the Asif
Jahi dynasty. Asif Jah I continued to maintain Aruangabad,
which had been founded by the Mughal rulers as the capital
of his new state. In 1769, Nizam Ali Khan Asif Jah II,
shifted the capital to Hyderabad. The seven Nizam's
of the Asif Jahi dynasty ruled the Deccan for nearly
224 years, right up to 1948. During the Asif Jahi period,
Persian, Urdu, Telugu and Marathi developed simultaneously.
The highest official positions were given to deserving
persons irrespective of their religion.
Persian was the official
language up to 1893 and then Urdu up to 1948. When the
British and the French spread their hold over the country,
the Nizam soon won their friendship without bequeathing
his power. The title "Faithful. Ally of the British
Government" was bestowed on Nizam VII. The British
stationed a Resident at Hyderabad, but the state continued
to be ruled by the Nizam. The rule of the seven Nizam's
saw the growth of Hyderabad both culturally and economically.
Huge reservoirs, like the Nizam Sagar, Tungabadra, Osman
Sagar, Himayath Sagar, and others were built. Survey
work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begun during this time.
Hyderabad, under the Nizam's, was the largest princely
state in India. Area wise it was as big as England and
Scotland put together. The State had its own currency,
mint, railways, and postal system. There was no income
tax. Soon after India gained independence, Hyderabad
State merged with the Union of India. On November 1,
1956 the map of India was redrawn into linguistic states,
and Hyderabad became the capital of Andhra Pradesh.